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Fundamental requirement of human being are are food ,shelter, cloth. for this requirement human is depend on natural resources. Nature is the source of various things these are soil,mineral,air,water,plants,animals etc. these are of two types 1] renewable .2] non renewable.

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  • To know about use of soil.
  • To know about source of water.
  • To know about use of minerals.
  • To know about marine
  • To know about use of air
  • To know about use of animals & plants









Sub unit

  1. Soil
  2. is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics.[1] It is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that include weathering and erosion. Soil differs from its parent rock due to interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere.[2] It is a mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states.[3][4]

Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with pore spaces. These pores contain soil solution (liquid) and air (gas).[5] Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system.[6] Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³.[7] Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. Little of the soil composition of planet Earth is older than the Tertiary and most no older than the Pleistocene.[8] In engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material.

Types of soil

Types of Soil: Clay


Clay soils contain very fine, flat particles which tend to stick together. They feel heavy and sticky and form a little ball when you rub a small amount between finger and thumb.

A handful of damp clay will retain the impression of your fingers and may appear shiny on the surface.

Disadvantages: When wet they are sticky and hard to work, and when dry they set hard and crack. They are prone to waterlogging and tend to warm up later in the spring than more open sandy soils.

Advantages: They are usually very rich in nutrients and their texture and workability can be improved by adding grit and bulky, very well rotted, organic matter. Improved clay soils will support quite a wide variety of plants.

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Types of Soil: Silt


Silty soils fall between clay and sand in terms of particle size, and feel smooth, silky or soapy when rubbed between your fingers.

They may form a fairly cohesive ball in the palm of your hand although they cannot be moulded in the same way as clay.

Disadvantages: When wet they tend to pack down and become heavy, cold and poorly drained rather like clay, although not to the same extent. They warm up quicker than clays but more slowly than sandy soils.

Advantages: They are generally quite fertile and will support a wide range of plants.

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Types of Soil: Sand


Sandy soils have a much larger particle size than clays and silts and feel quite gritty between your fingers.

If you squeeze them when wet they don't usually hold their shape.

Disadvantages: The larger particle size means they are very free draining and tend to lose nutrients easily.

Advantages: They are easy to work and warm up quickly in spring so you can get your season off to a flying start. The texture and fertility can be improved by adding rich organic matter.

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Types of Soil: Chalk


Chalk soils were described by Geoff Hamilton as 'pale and hungry looking' which sums them up really well! They feel dry and crumbly in your hand, are usually greyish white in colour, and contain fragments of white chalk.

A ball of chalky soil will collapse into fairly large particles.

Disadvantages: They tend to be very stony and shallow and will not support deep rooted plants. They are very free draining and lose nutrients easily. Importantly, these types of soil are also very alkaline and will not support acid loving plants.

Advantages: They can be improved with the addition of organic matter and are reasonably fertile. There is also a good range of lime tolerant plants.

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Types of Soil: Peat


Peat soils have a very high organic content so are very dark, almost black, in colour. In your hand they feel moist and spongy and are hard to roll into a ball.

If you look closely you will see that they contain many fibrous plant remains. It is relatively rare to find pure peat in a garden - after all, who would build a house on a peat bog?

Disadvantages: In general they easily become waterlogged and are usually acidic so you will not be able to grow lime loving plants. The acidity also means that they support only a limited range of beneficial soil organisms.

Advantages: They are potentially very fertile and can be cultivated quite intensively. The addition of lime to selected areas will enable you to grow fruit and vegetables. You can make the most of your ornamental garden by growing the many beautiful acid loving plants.

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Types of Soil: Loam


In practice, most cultivated soils fall somewhere in between these broad categories and are a blend of different particle sizes. These types of soil are known as 'loams'.

The main characteristics of these loams are those of the predominant mineral.

Disadvantages: Clay loams tend to be heavy and slow draining and are difficult to work when wet. In very dry conditions they harden and form surface cracks.

Sandy loams, on the other hand, are free draining. They are quite easy to work but dry out easily and nutrients are quickly lost.

Silty loams are prone to compaction and tend to settle into a dense airless mass.

Advantages: The fact that loams contain a broader range of particle sizes means that they do not display the extreme characteristics and behaviour of, say, a pure clay or sandy soil, and are easier to work with.

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uses of soil –

1. for making pots


2. For making buildings & roads.

[[Image:]][[Image:]]3.To use for agricultureal

[[Image:]]4. to use for cosmetics purposes.


  • minerals

definition of mineral- A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance that is formed through geological processes and that has a characteristic chemical composition,

examples of minerals

  1. ores- alluminium , iron,copper,gold,silver,
  2. crude oil- petrol,diesel,kerosine,
  3. natural gas- compressed natural gas,liquified natural gas

uses of mineral –

  1. industrial.
  2. Electricity.
  3. Metallic pots.
  4. Tools.
  5. Fuels.


Water is an essential mineral for living organism on earth. So is known as life. Major part of living organism occupied by 80-95% water .

Sources of water







Air is an essential factor for life .air is the mixture of gases. largest part of air is nitrogen & oxygen . Air also contains the gases such as carbon dioxide,carbon monoxide

Uses of air

  • Oxygen is essential for breathing .
  • Oxygen is required For burning process .

5.Plants & animals

  • Uses of plants .
  1. For food.
  2. For medicine
  3. for building
  4. as a fuel.
  • Uses of animals
  1. for food
  2. for agriculture
  3. for transportation
  4. leather articles
  • Causes of natural imbalance
  1. earth quick
  2. tsunami
  3. sliding of mountains
  4. flood
  5. cyclone
  6. dry out
  7. excess use of natural resources

Conservation of natural resources.

  1. Conservation of forest
  2. Conservation of water
  3. Conservation of minerals & crude oil
  4. To avoid pollution
  5. Avoid excess use of natural resources
  6. Plantation
  7. Avoids pollution
  8. Re-use of natural resources
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