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Natural Vegetation and Wildlife


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Topic:Natural Vegetation and Wildlife


The World Geography can be studied with the help of regional method. Prof.Herberson has his great contribution in teaching of this method.He classified the world into different regions based on the climatic condition and the vegetation.

Evergreen forest


Geography is an integral component of Social Science. At this stage learners are introduced to the basic concepts necessary for understanding the world in which they live. Geography will be introduced to promote the understanding of interdependence of various regions and countries. The child will be introduced to the contemporary issues such as global distribution of economic resources, gender, marginalized group, and environment and on going process of globalization.

The course at this stage comprises study of the earth as the habitat of humankind, study of environment, resources and development at different scales, local, regional/national and the world.


The major objectives of the course are to:

  1. develop an understanding about the earth as the habitat of humankind and other forms of life.
  2. Initiate the learner into a study of her/his own region, state and country in the global context.
  3. Introduce the global distribution of economic resources and the on going process of globalization.
  4. Promote the understanding of interdependence of various regions and countries.

There is a close relationship between height of the land and the type of vegetation. The growth of vegetation depends upon temperature and moisture. It also depends on the factors like slope and thickness of the soil. The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies from place to place because of the variation in these factors.

Natural vegetation is classified into three broad categories:

  • Forests
  • Grasslands
  • Shrubs
  1. Forests:Tropical Evergreen ForestsFound in the regions near the equator and close to the topics. These regions are hot and it rains almost throughout the year. Hence we find dense forests. Sun rays does not penetrate through the canopy of trees, hence sun rays do not reach the ground. Hardwood tall trees like rosewood, mahagony, ebony are common here.

Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

Sl. No. Name & location of the Region Areas Climate vegetation Animals People Minerals
1 The Tundra Region

Tundra or Polar region extends beyond 60°N Latitude up to North Pole & South Pole


Canada Eurasia Coastal Greenland

Sum 10°C

Winter -44°C Pptn 25cm in the form of snowfall

Moss, lichens, Flowers Bear, Seal, Walrus, Penguin, Caribou Lappa-Lapland

Inuit-Canada Samoyeds-Siberia Eskimos-Alaska

Petroleum, Gold, - Alaska

Iron-Labrador Nickel-Siberia

2 Taiga Region

50° North up to 65° N.Latitude

Alaska, Sweden, Canada, Finland, Eurasia, Norway Sum 15 C

5 cm Pptn Win 10C

Coniferous, Pine, Fir, Birch, Oak, Maple, Cedar Rabbit, Beaver, Squirrel, Raccon, musk rat, sable, wolf Occupation:

Lumbering, Fishing, Rearing of reindeers, Mining,

Gold, Uranium, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Lead
3 West European Type Region

45 -60 N.Latitude

NW Europe France, Belgium,

Germany Denmark, UK, W.Canada, S.America (S Chile), Aus (Tasmania, aouth islands of NZD

18C-25 C Temperate deciduous (Oak, elm, maple, beech, Birch, hemlock, cedar, sequois, redwood) Deer, foxes, hares, hedgehogs, wolves, cows horses
4 Temperate Grassland Region

40-60 N.Latitude

Centeral South Canada, USA, C.Asia, Hungary, Rumania, Interior of S.Africa, SE Aus, Argentina, NZ Summer 10C

Winter 8C Cold and Dry /50cm rain summer

Short/ Tall Grass Prairie dogs, jack, rabbits, deer, rodents, coyotes, foxes, skunks, wolves/live stock N. America- (Red Indian) natives

S.America-Pampas (Gauchos) C.Asia-Steppes(khirghiz, kazaks, Turks S.Africa-Velds(Zulus)

5 The Mediterranean Region

30-45 Latitude in both Hemisphere

Around Mediterranean sea, North- NZ, Central- Chile, S.Australia, SE Africa, California Max20 -32C

Minimum 5C Dry Summer, Wet Winter

Cork,Oak, Cedar, Olive, Mulberry, Cypress Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Pigs, Donkeys, Mules Occupation:

Horticulture, Gardenning, Fishing, Sericulture, Viticulture

6 The Hot Desert Region/Tropical Desert

15-30 Latitude in both Hemisphere


N&S.America SW Asia, India & Pakisthan, Australia


very hot during day & very cold at night

Bushes, Cacti, Acacia,Date Palm Camels, Sheep, Goats


Name of the desert:

Sahara Kalahari Colarado Maxican Atacama Arabian Desert Great Indian Desert(Thar) Great Australian desert

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