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Noise Pollution

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Contents

NOISE POLLUTION

DEFINITION

The present generation and the coming generations have to solve three grave problems, namely, population poverty and pollution if they have to survive. Pollution being the most dangerous problem likes cancer in which death is sure but slow. Environment pollution is assuming dangerous proportions all through the globe and India is not free from this poisonous disease. This is the gift of modern living, industrialization and urbanization. Unless timely action is taken we have a forbid and bleak future for the world.

The word noise is derived from the Latin term nausea. It has been defined as unwanted sound, a potential hazard to health and communication dumped into the environment with regard to the adverse effect it may have on unwilling ears.1

Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Sound, which pleases the listeners, is music and that which causes pain and annoyance is noise. At times, what is music for some can be noise for others.

Measurement

A decibel is the standard for the measurement of noise. Hearing, the lowest sound pressure that can be heard, on the scale. To smith, 20 db is whisper, 40 db the noise in a quiet office . 60 db is normal conversation, 80 db is the level at which sound becomes physically painful. The Noise quantum of some of the cities in our country indicate their pitch in decibel in the nosiest areas of corresponding cities, e.g. Delhi- 80 db, Kolkata - 87,Bombay-85, Chennai-89 db etc.

SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION

Noise pollution like other pollutants is also a by- product of industrialization, urbanization and modern civilization. Broadly speaking , the noise pollution has two sources, i.e. industrial and non- industrial. The industrial source includes the noise from various industries and big machines working at a very high speed and high noiseintensity. Non- industrial source of noise includes the noise created by transport/vehicular traffic and the neighborhood noise generated by various noise pollution can also be divided in the categories , namely, natural and manmade. Most leading noise sources will fall into the following categories: road traffic, aircraft, railroad ,construction, industry, noise in buildings, and consumer products

CAUSES FOR NOISE POLLUTION

Road Traffic Noise

In the city, the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaust system of autos , smaller trucks, buses,and motorcycles. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings, which produce acanyon in which traffic noise reverberates.

Air Craft Noise

Now-a-days , the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a new dimension to community annoyance, as the nation seeks to improve its nap-of the- earth aircraft operations over national parks, wilderness areas , andother areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise has claimed national attention over recent years.


Noise from Railroads

The noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles, and switching and shunting operation in rail yards canimpact neighboring communities and railroad workers. For example, rail car retarders can produce a highfrequency, high level screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet, which translates tolevels as high as 138, or 140 dB at the railroad worker’s ear.

Construction Noise

The noise from the construction of highways , city streets , and buildings is a major contributor to the urbanscene . Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers, air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dumptrucks (and their back-up signals), and pavement breakers.

Noise in Industry

Although industrial noise is one of the less prevalent community noise problems, neighbors of noisy manufacturing plants can be disturbed by sources such as fans, motors, and compressors mounted on theoutside of buildings Interior noise can also be transmitted to the community through open windows and doors,and even through building walls. These interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers,among whom noise- induced hearing loss is unfortunately common.

Noise in Building

Apartment dwellers are often annoyed by noise in their homes, especially when the building is not well designed and constructed. In this case, internal building noise from plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, andfans, can be audible and annoying. Improperly insulated walls and ceilings can reveal the sound of amplified music, voices, footfalls and noisy activities from neighboring units. External noise from emergency vehicles,traffic, refuse collection, and other city noises can be a problem for urban residents, especially when windows are open or insufficiently glazed.

Noise from Consumer products

Certain household equipment, such as vacuum cleaners and some kitchen appliances have been and continueto be noisemakers, although their contribution to the daily noise dose is usually not very large.

Harmful Effects

The effects of Noise Pollution on Human Being, Animal and property are as follows:

It decreases the efficiency of a man

Regarding the impact of noise on human efficiency there are number ofexperiments which print out the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction.

Lack of concentration

For better quality of work there should be concentration , Noise causes lack of concentration. In big cities , mostly all the offices are on main road. The noise of traffic or the loud speakers ofdifferent types of horns divert the attention of the people working in offices.

Fatigue

Because of Noise Pollution, people cannot concentrate on their work. Thus they have to give their more time for completing the work and they feel tiring

Abortion is caused

There should be cool and calm atmosphere during the pregnancy. Unpleasant sounds make a lady of irriative nature. Sudden Noise causes abortion in females.

It causes Blood Pressure

Noise Pollution causes certain diseases in human. It attacks on the person’s peace of mind. The noises are recognized as major contributing factors in accelerating the already existing tensions of modern living. These tensions result in certain disease like blood pressure or mental illness etc.

Temporary of permanent Deafness

The effect of nose on audition is well recognized. Mechanics , locomotive drivers, telephone operators etc. All have their hearing . Impairment as a result of noise at the place of work. Physictist, physicians & psychologists are of the view that continued exposure to noise level above. 80 to 100 db is unsafe, Loud noise causes temporary or permanent deafness.

EFFECT ON VEGETATION POOQUALITY OF CROPS

Now is well known to all that plants are similar to human being. They are also as sensitive as man. There should be cool & peaceful environment for their better growth. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops in a pleasant atmosphere.

EFFECT ON ANIMAL

Noise pollution damage the nervous system of animal. Animal looses the control of its mind. They become dangerous.

EFFECT ON PROPERTY

Loud noise is very dangerous to buildings, bridges and monuments. It creates waves which struck the walls and put the building in danger condition. It weakens the edifice of buildings.

Legal Control

constitution of India

Right to Life

Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees life and personal liberty to all persons. It is well settled by repeated pronouncements of the Supreme Court that right to life enshrined in Article 21 is not of mere survival or existence. It guarantees a right of persons to life with human dignity. Any one who wishes to live in peace, comfort and quiet within his house has a right to prevent the noise as pollutant reaching him.

Right to Information

Every one has the right to information know about the norms and conditions on which Govt. permit the industry which effect the environment.

Right to Religion and Noise

Right to religion does not include right to perform religious activities on loud speaker and electronic goods which produce high velocity of noise.

Directive Principal of State Policy

The state has the object to make the enviornment to be noise pollution free.

Noise Margin(DSL)

Noise Margin (also called SNR Margin) is the relative strength of the DSL signal to Noise ratio. 6dB is generally the lowest dB manufactures specify in order for the modem to be able to synch. In someinstances interleaving can help raise the noise margin to an acceptable level. Generally speaking, as overall bandwidth increases, your signal to noise ratio decreases. A customer that upgrades from 1.5 to 6.0 will typically see a corresponding decrease in the signal to noise ratio.

This is normal and nothing to worry about. The higher the number the better for this measurement. The Following is the comparision of the different Noise Margin Values and their effect on the DSL connection.


• 6dB or below is bad and will experience no synch or intermittent synch problems.

• 7dB-10dB is fair but does not leave much room for variances in conditions.

• 11dB-20dB is good with no synch problems.

• 20dB-28dB is excellent.

• 29dB or above is outstanding.

Reducing Noise Pollution

Responsibility as to enforcement of noise pollution control measures

(1) The noise levels in any area/zone shall not exceed the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise as specified in the Schedule.

(2) The authority shall be responsible for the enforcement of noise pollution control measures and the due compliance of the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise.

(3) The respective State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees in consultation with the Central Pollution Control Board shall collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to noise pollution and measures devised for its effective prevention, control and abatement.

Restrictions on the use of loud speakers/public address system

(1) A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used except after obtaining written permission from the authority.

(2) A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used at night (between 10.00 p.m. to 6.00 a.m.) except in closed premises for communication within, e.g. auditoria, conference rooms, community halls and banquet halls.

(3)Not withstanding anything contained in sub-rule (2), the State Government may subject to such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution, permit use of loud speakers or public address systems during night hours (between 10.00 p.m. to 12.00 midnight) on or during any cultural or religious festive occasion of a limited duration not exceeding fifteen days in all during a calendar year.

Consequences of any violation in silence zone/area

Whoever, in any place covered under the silence zone/area commits any of the following offence, he shall be liable for penalty under the provisions of the Act:

(i) whoever, plays any music or uses any sound amplifiers,…4/=.

(ii) whoever, beats a drum or tom-tom or blows a horn either musical or pressure, or trumpet or beats or sounds any instrument, or

(iii) whoever, exhibits any mimetic, musical or other performances of a nature to attract crowds.

Complaints to be made to the authority

(1) A person may, if the noise level exceeds the ambient noise standards by 10 dB(A) or more given in the corresponding columns against any area/zone, make a complaint to the authority.

(2) The authority shall act on the complaint and take action against the violator in accordance with the provisions of these rules and any other law in force.

Power to prohibit etc. continuance of music sound or noise

(1) If the authority is satisfied from the report of an officer in-charge of a police station or other information received by him including from the complainant that it is necessary to do so in order to prevent annoyance, disturbance, discomfort or injury or risk of annoyance, disturbance, discomfort or injury to the public or to any person who dwell or occupy property on the vicinity, he may, by a written order issue such directions as he may consider necessary to any person for preventing, prohibiting, controlling or regulating:

the incidence or continuance in or upon any premises of

(i) any vocal or instrumental music,

(ii) sounds caused by playing, beating, clashing, blowing or use in any manner whatsoever of any instrument including loudspeakers, public address systems, appliance or apparatus or contrivance which is capable of producing or re-producing sound, or

(b) the carrying on in or upon, any premises of any trade, avocation or operation or process resulting in or attended with noise. …5/=.

The authority empowered

under sub-rule (1) may, either on its own motion, or on the application of any person aggrieved by an order made under sub-rule (1), either rescind, modify or alter any such order: Provided that before any such application is disposed of, the said authority shall afford to the applicant and to the original complainant, as the case may be, an opportunity of appearing before it either in person or by a person representing him and showing cause against the order and shall, if it rejects any such application either wholly or in part, record its reasons for such rejection. SCHEDULE (see rule 3(l) and 4(l)

Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise

Area Code Category of Area/Zone Limits in dB(A) Leq * Day Time NightTime

Sl.no Area code Day time Night time
1. Industrial 75 70
2. Commercial 65 55
3. Residential 55 45
4. silent 50 40

Note:

1. Day time shall mean from 6.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m.

2. Night time shall mean from 10.00 p.m. to 6.00 a.m.

3. Silence zone is an area comprising not less than 100 metres around hospitals, educational institutions, courts, religious places or any other area which is declared as such by competent authority.”


Conclusion

We have made the law relating to noise pollution but there is need to creating general awareness towards the hazardous effects of noise pollution. Particularly, in our country the people generally lack consciousness of the ill effects which noise pollution creates ad how the society including they themselves stand to beneficiary preventing generation and emission of noise pollution. The target area should be educational institutions and more particularly school. The young children of impressionable age should be motivated to desist from playing with firecrackers, use of high sound producing equipments and instruments on festivals, religious and social functions, family get-togethers and celebrations etc. which cause noise pollution. Suitable chapters can be added into textbooks, which teach civic sense to the children and teach them how to be good and responsible citizen which would include learning by heart of various fundamental duties and that would obliviously include learning not to create noise pollution and to prevent if generated by others. Holding of special talks and lectures can be organized in the schools to highlight the menance of noise pollution and the role of the children in preventing it . For these purpose the state must pay its role by the support and cooperation of non-government organizations (NGOs) can also be enlisted.

Test your Progress

1.Define Noise Pollution?

2.What are causes for Noise Pollution?

3.What do you mean by Noise Margin?

4.What are rules governed by authorities to reduce noise pollution?

5.What is the measurement for Noise pollution?

6.How do you motivate children to reduce Noise Pollution in the environment?

7.What is your role in awareing the people to reduce Noise pollution?


References

1.Wiki Pedia,Encyclopedia.

2.[Noise Pollution,Deepak Miglani}

3.Google Images.

4.[Noise pollution stock Photos and Images]

5.Gazzette of India vide Notification Number S.O.123(B) dated the 14thFebruary 2000.

A.GOWRI SANKARA RAO,LECTURER,DIET,VIZIANAGARAM,ANDHRA PRADESH STATE.

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