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Simple Science Experiment for Primary Classes


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=INTRODUCTION=*ശാസ്ത്ര പഠനത്തിന് സഹായകരമായ ലഘു പ്രവറ്ത്തനങ്ങളാണ് ഈ പേജിലുള്ളത്.

Children of primary school age learn best from first hand experiences . So practical works and experimentation has a central role in their science learning.The value of practical experiences acquired through activities, however, increased by discussing and sharing ideas about how to make sense of what is seen or done.Recent researches provide a warning that practical works may not improve learning unless it's purpose is clear to children,and teacher and children are involved in planning ,so that they know why certain steps have to be taken and what look for in finding results.
Practical work is best assigned, if possible, with children working in mixed ability groups of 4-6,engaged on aspects of common problems or issues(Pedagogic and social).They achieve more than any group alone by sharing their findings and adding to wider understanding to a problem.
The key to developing understanding of process and concepts is to ensure that pupils are challenged by questioning and testing their on ideas and those of others.In this way the children are also more likely to enjoy their science as well as to learn from it.This initiative by a group of teachers has taken to support the teacher to have a choice on selecting materials and experiments for use in primary science in centrality of first hand experience.Children learn best when they explore things around them,so simple ,familiar utensils are to be preferred over more complex laboratory materials.

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  • Help the teacher's in effective transaction of science based activities and experiments in K-5 Classes
  • Empower the teacher and learner to design and construct(device)simple experiment s from real life surroundings
  • Provide opportunity for teacher and students to use their own ideas through the development of preocess skill

Child related objectives

  • Inculcate scientific interest
  • Link the experiences of real life with scientific concepts
  • Develop collaborative learning, sharing skills
  • Induce the child for free exploration, directive investigation skills
  • Provide opportunity for observation, planning of activities, interpretation of ideas
  • Improve the child's communication ability
  • Encourage to compare their expectations with their findings
  • Develop critical analysis of various ways and means to reach the results
  • Improve the child's scientific understanding on various incidents around them
  • Look things in a scientific ways
  • Sustain and develop curiosity among children
  • Appreciate the underlying rationale, with day to day activities
  • Empower the child to hold and express personal point of view on issues.

Planning and managing primary science

  • Utilization of simple Experiments in your Primary class

While planning for your Experiments

Putting it in the actual context * What are the “big”and “New” ideas,skills and attitudes comes as the out come?
  • What have the children before the activity?
Setting the learning objectives * What do the children know and understand about the subject?
  • What ideas they must have?
  • What skill they developed?
Select activity * Engage the student's interest?
  • What questions will stimulate thinking?
  • What resources will be needed?
  • What opportunities for assessing kid's progress?
Plan Out line of activity * Think about the slots in your lesson plan.
  • Write it..
  • Try out it


  • Introducing real life activities

The children looking at the bird's nest asked"Where did it come from? "What kind of stuff is this made of ?""how long do the eggs take to hatch?" In this case the teacher knew where the nest had come from and helped the children to identify the "stuff" as hair.But for the length of hatching she did not have knowledge and conversation ran on as follows Teacher:Well you have asked me a question that I cant answer -how many days it would take-there is a way that you could find out,Do you know how?

Child-1:Watch it.....

Child-2:From a bird watcher..

Child-3:A book

Teacher:Yes ,this is some thing you can look up in a book and when you have found out...

Child-1:[rush and pick some books]I have got one here some where.

Child-1:here there is page about them

Teacher :there we are Above discussion between children and teacher answered many questions raised by them and learned more.

Do you think little more..., if You allow them to do some real life related experiments ?

  • Assessment for learning Science

While providing activity for your kids...........Check Yourself

  • Is the activity linked to the children'sexperience
  • Was the activity accssible to them?
  • Could the children interact with material?
  • Could theydevelop theire scientific ideas?
  • Could they develop process skill?
  • Could theydevelop theire scientific attitudes?
  • Could they work in group- Coperatively and share the ideas in supportive classroom climate?
  • Kids Products and Materials
  • The following format will help you to develop recording of Kids products and materials. You can modify the format based on the activity you provide them.
Action points ch-1 ch-2 Ch-3 Ch-4 Ch-5 Ch-6 Ch-7 Ch-8 ....
I Have experimented to find out about some differences between ice,water,and steam
I know what happen when water disappears
I have found out how other liquids evaporate
I have investigated different conditions......
I know......
I know how to make......
I can write clear accounts and explain my results...
I suggest what might happen and explain why.

Activity based learning in science

  • Process skills in elementary science students
    • Questioning,predicting and planning
    • Gathering,evidence by observing and using information sources
    • Interpreting Evidences and drawing conclusion
    • Communicating and reflecting

How can you develop Process skills of Gathering Information by observing and using sources ?

  • Provide informal opportunities for using senses for gathering information
      • Regular display of objects and phenomena for children to explore,wit books.CD's
      • Time for observing
      • collection of objects relating a new topic
  • Access to correct use of instruments
      • Extend the senses, use of microscope and other simple instruments
      • allow to measure the changes or differences
  • Teach the techniques for using information sources such as reference books CD's , Internet.
      • Set up situations where observations are shared
  • Organize visits to observe events and objects out side the classroom

Experiments on elementary science themes


Looking at water, you might think that it's the most simple thing around. Pure water is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. But it's not at all simple and plain and it is vital for all life on Earth. Where there is water there is life, and where water is scarce, life has to struggle.So what is it about water that makes it so important to us? And what is it about water that makes it water? and why water is so critical to living things?.Water has always been perceived as a gift from the gods as it rained from the heavens. Water being an unavoidable component for life and growth, all kids shows endless curiosity to have an experience with wonderful heaps of experiments with water.


  • Plan the following activity based on your lesson objectives.Provide the material with some introductory discussion which leads to divergent thinking, variety of methods(Including right and wrong procedure)
  • Provide enough space to prove their arguments on procedure followed and results of each group/ individual
  • Bring the conclusions of each group/ individual in pleanery discussion and make them "edit" the concepts and methods.

Activity1:Fill your tumbler with a straw


2 small tumbler, straw, water

Task for your Kids

  • Provide one empty tumbler and a tumbler full of water
  • Fill water to the empty tumbler using the straw
  • Who is the winner??
Try This

Trails Methods Reasons
1st Kid
2nd Kid
3rd Kid

Activity2:First & Fast


tumbler , straw, Scissor, water

Task for your Kids

  • Provide glass of water, a straw to each kid(Make a hole in the middle of the straw in advance)
  • Ask to drink the water with the straw
  • Who finish first? & How?

Problems raised by the Kids

Sl. No Reason Remarks
1st Kid
2nd Kid
3rd Kid

'Activity - 3:Rain rain go away'


Plastic bottle, pin, candle, matches, bucket of water,

Task for your Kids

  • Make 15 to 20 holes on the bottom of the bottle with the pin
  • Make a hole on the lid of the bottle
  • Fill the bottle with water
  • Try to stop the rain fall
  • Make it to fall as per you direction

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'Activity - 4: State of water '


Beaker, funnel, spirit lamp, ice cube, tripod stand, wire gauze,

Task for your Kids

  • Place the beaker on the tripod stand
  • Place the ice cube in the funnel placed on the mouth of the beaker
  • Heat the beaker with spirit lamp

Find Observations Remarks
What happen to ice cube ?
What is happening to the water formed ?

Add to your resource Download this Power point presentation Presentation on water


"Though we feel that we are in the midst of air but can we see air, let us see"

The Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%


  • Plan the following activity based on your lesson objectives.Provide the material with some introductory discussion which leads to divergent thinking, variety of methods(Including right and wrong procedure)
  • Provide enough space to prove their arguments on procedure followed and results of each group/ individual
  • Bring the conclusions of each group/ individual in pleanery discussion and make them "edit" the concepts and methods.

Activity- 1 Water Spry


OBJECTS: One tumbler, two empty re filler

PROCEDURE: Take a glass of water and put a empty re filler into it.Blow the air to the tip of the re filler immersed in the water with the help of the other re filler.

Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Child 5


This is the place where the children learn many lessons, without knowing soil we cannot start

learning, let us learn something about soil.

ACTIVITY 1- Pour Water on the Soil

        • Equipments Required:- Two plastic bottle with same size,Woolen Cloth, Soil, Small glass bottle, Razorblades.(Haxoblades)

  • Activity: Take two samples of soil from your school front and nearby school, cut the top of plastic bottles and use it as a funnel. Put the woolen cloths into the funnels and put selected soils in it. Pour the water in to the soil collected in the funnel. Find out which soil sample filter more water easily.

Assess your kids by using the tabular column

Sample I Predict{put a tick} After Experimentation Reason
Funnel 1 More


No difference



No Difference

Funnel 2 More


No difference



No Difference

Living Beings

"To know the surroundings, Nature, creatures, trees, Plants we have plenty of sources, let us learn"

All of us likes very much plants, flowers, fruits etc.
You know that a plant does many useful things to us....The plants provides us food, fresh air etc.
It also prevents environmental pollution

see this interesting video on the growth of plants

The following projects may help you understanding the growth in plants

Activity-1 Kids' garden.

Kids can get a good grasp on germination and plant needs.
Seed experimenting can also help germinate a kid’s interest in gardening.
Encourage children to plant their own in the school and in their houses.
Let them to water it and take its care regularly.
Let them observe the changes taking place, and interpret it.

Activity-2 Germination of the seeds

Germinating seed in a tray.
Plant Science Project.
Plant Science Project.

You need these equipments
Flower pots or seed trays.
Fresh sterile multi-purpose compost.

Germinating seeds in clean plastic flower pots produces the best results. Seed trays can be used with larger amounts of seed

Activity-3:Seed growth rate

What affects the seed growth rate?
Make a list of the things a plant needs,
The list should include sunlight, water, food and air.
Does changing any of these factors affect how fast the seed germinates?
Then try changing one of those factors.
For this try the activities 3 and 4

Activity-4:Growing without soil

Believe it or not, seeds and plants can be grown in just water.
You can do experiments with different plants and compare growth in water to
traditional growth in soil.

Activity-5:Does soil matter?

Does the type of soil matter?
Get several different types of soil.
For example, get top soil, potting soil and a germinating mix.
Take three seeds of the same kind.
Place equal amounts of each type of soil in three-inch pots.
Then plant one seed in each pot. Take notes.
Does one seed grow faster than the others?
Do any of the seeds grow fast and then just stop growing?
Let the experiment run on for a few weeks.
There are so many experiments that kids can do to have fun with seeds.
Start the gardening season with knowledge that will help you succeed
in this year’s gardens.

Activity-6:Houseplant Science Projects for Children

You can share the excitement by trying some simple science experiments using house plants
or flowers that you may have already in your home; by doing this you’ll be teaching your child :that there is a constant correlation between our everyday lives and the wonders of science.
Now the following activities on Animal Habitat helps to
Scientific study of living styles of different creatures
Animals live everywhere on earth--in every kind of terrain and every kind of climate.
An animal's living place is called its habitat.
Most animals are only adapted to live in one or two habitats.
A baracuda which is a salt water fish could not live in a fresh water lake.
A walrus could not live in a desert.
A rattlesnake could not live for very long in the arctic.
Some animals migrate in the spring and again in the fall to find warmer habitats
with an abundance of food.

Activity-7: Match the Habitat

Match the animals below to their normal habitats.
Fold a plain piece of paper in half. Fold it in half again.
Fold it in half 2 more times.
When you unfold it, you should have 16 squares on your paper.
Write each of these 16 habitats at the top of the squares. Under each habitat,
fill in the animal that lives in that particular habitat.
Some animals will belong in more than one habitat.

The habitats are:

1. Polar/arctic areas

2. Mountains

3. Oceans

4. Deserts

5. Savannah/grasslands/prairies

6. Tropical rain forest

7. Woodland/forest

8. Tundra

9. Taiga

10. Wetland areas/marshes

11. Pond

12. Rivers/lakes

13. Coral reef

14. Deciduous forest

15. Tide pool

16. Cave

Activity-8: Learning through fun games

Click on these links then play and learn the habitats

the habitat

habitat with fun

Activity-9:Projects on Habitats of Animals

These Group Activities can be done
1.Acquarium can be made
2.Models on habitats
3.Pictures and Paintings on Habitat


Activity-10:Protection of Animals

Watch this Video film and express your feelings on the following grounds
1.Importance of Habitat
2.Endangered Species
3.Protection of wild life

Natural phenomenon

A natural phenomenon is a non-artificial event in the physical sense, and therefore
not produced by humans, although it may affect humans
(e.g. bacteria, aging, natural disasters, death.)
Common examples of natural phenomena include volcanic eruptions, weather, and decay. ...
It is really interesting to about these things scientifically
Now let us start our observations with rainbow.

Activity-1 : Sky Watch

It is very common to have the folloing kind of pictures in the sky

Rainbow. Rainbow.

what condition of the weather makes such colours to appear in the sky? Discuss

Activity-2 : Water spray Experiment

You can form a rainbow to appear during a sunny day by spraying water.
Before you try the experiment watch this video.
You try such similar experiments and enjoy
Discuss Principle of rainbow formation. The video which you observed helps you to make interpretations

Activity-3 : Fun with colours

Use your creativity to to make pictures and models using rainbow colours.
Please see these rainbow colour activity pictures
Rainbow colour activity.
Rainbow colour activity.

Revolution and Rotation of Planets

Planets. Revolution of Planets. Rotation of earth on its axis.

Activity-4 : What is my age?

If I have completed 10 revolutions around the sun what is my age?
very simple farmula One revolution=1 Year

Activity-5 : Planets and their Revolution

List out from the experiences of our daily life the evidences for
1.Rotation of earth around itself
2.Revolution of earth around the sun
Your list may include
occurance of day and Night
Occurence of different seasons on earth, etc.
Watch this video to make more interpretations

Activity-6 : Let us Rotate and Revolve

This activity may help us to distinguish between Rotation and Revolution.
Darken the classroom. Have 4 students stand back to back and shine the flashlights outwards.
These students are the "Sun".
Divide the remaining students so they slowly revolve around the "Sun".
They are "planets". Have the "planets" rotate by spinning as they revolve around the Sun. :Make sure you do this activity in a large open space.
Ask the "Sun" how long it takes the planets to complete one revolution.
Ask them how long one revolution of the Earth takes (365 days or one year).
Ask the "planets how long it takes them to rotate.
Also ask them how long it takes the real Earth to rotate (1 day)
Learning Point
The planets move around the Sun. This motion is called revolution.
Each of the planets also spins around an internal axis which is called rotation.

Activity-7 : Earth and Moon

Have a pair of students pretend to be the Earth and the Moon.
Have the "Earth" stand still and rotate, and the "Moon" revolves around the Earth.
Explain to the class that these two motions happen as the entire Earth-Moon system
revolves around the Sun.
Ask the class if the Earth and Moon "shine" by themselves (no).
Ask the students where the light comes from (the Sun).
State that the light starts from the Sun, bounces off (is reflected) f
from the Moon and then we see it on Earth.
It may look like the Moon has its own light, but it does not.

Activity-8: Walk and turn

Designate a spot in a clear part of the classroom as the Sun. Tell the students that
when you say "revolution" they should start walking around the Sun.
When you say "rotation", they should start to turn around on their axes.
This can be a fun game. Continue until the students get it right. This may take a while!
As the students are rotating on their axes, make sure they realize that when they are
facing the flashlights (the Sun) it is day, and when they are facing away it is night.
Make sure that your students understand that rotation and revolution are going on at the :same time. Some students may have difficulty doing both activities simultaneously.
You may wish to have a student with good motor skills demonstrate them to the class.
Tell the students that everything in the Universe is moving:
the Earth, the Moon, the planets, the Sun, and even entire galaxies.
The one thing all the parts of the Universe have in common is that they are moving.
Your students are moving with the Earth as you talk!

Add to your resource Download this Power pointpresentation

More activities

More activities
  • A-Z.......for Your classroom

=Action Race:= This is a fun game using actions.  Use actions like jump, hop, clap, run etc.  Have the Ss split into two teams and sit in lines with a chair by each team and one chair at the other end of the room.  One S from each team stands next to their chair and T calls an action, e.g. "Jump".  Ss must jump to the chair on the other side of the room and back, sitting down in their chair Ss say "I can jump". First one to do it gets their team a point.  (Submitted by Gareth Thomas).

Adjectival Action: T writes on the board an activity like "bush your teeth." She/He picks one student, they come to the front of the class. The T then shows the S a card with an adjective written on it like "slowly" or whatever. The chosen student then does the activity in the way of the adjective. The other S have to guess the adjective. The one who guesses right gets a point and mimes the next action which the teacher writes on the board. To help them you can give them a list of options, if you think they need some help.  (Submitted by Libby McArthur)

Art Gallery: This is a great activity for reviewing vocab.  Draw enough squares on the board for each S to be able to draw in.  Have the Ss write their names above their squares.  T calls out a word and the Ss draw it (could be simple nouns e.g. "dog, bookcase, train", verb structures e.g. "draw a man running, eating cake, sleeping") or adjectives ("draw a big elephant, an angry lion, an expensive diamond ring").  For each S give a score for his/her picture, and then move on to the next picture.  The S with the highest score at the end is the winner.

Attention: Call out commands such as: Attention, salute, march in place...stop, sit down, stand up, walk in a circle, clap your hands...stop, run in place...stop, jumping jacks...stop, swim in place....stop, etc. At first students will copy you but later they should be able to do the commands without you.  (Submitted by Tania Bibbo). 

Backs to the Board Game: This one is good for higher level kids.  Make two teams and stand one S from each team in front of the board, facing away from it.  Write a word or draw a picture on the board (e.g. "hamburger") and the Ss have to explain that word to their team member (e.g. you can buy it in McDonalds, it's got cheese and ketchup in it).  The first S out of the two standing in front of the board to guess the word wins a point for his/her team.

Badminton: Good for reviewing target vocabulary (words or communicative expressions). Set a "court" into the classroom by placing a skip-rope tied up to two chairs. Make two small teams (the other Ss can be the crowd and or challengers). Give each S a flyswatter ("Racket"). Inflate a balloon (this will be the ball). Remember: the younger the Ss, the bigger the balloon must be (slower).  Decides who serves and for every point one team scores, have the opposite team call out the flashcard or picture card by the T shown.  Lots of fun!  (NOTE: For very active Ss be careful since they might hit the others' faces when playing).  (submitted by Salvador Domingo)

Bingo: Can be played with numbers, letters, pictures or even words. The winner is the first to either get a line or or full house.

Blind Toss: Have Ss sit down in a circle.  Place a mat on the floor with numbers and a flashcard (target vocabulary) on each number.  Taking turns, each S gets blindfolded and tosses a beanbag so as to hit a number.  S/he must call out that word the same number of times as the number indicates.  For example: 4-dog, then "Dog, Dog, Dog, Dog! and the S gets the equal points (4).  At the end, the S with the most points wins!  Good for memorizing vocabulary since they are repeating words.  (Submitted by Salvador Domingo).

Directions: Build a model of a town, including some streets. Use a radio controlled car (a toy) and give the controller to Ss.  Practice directions, e.g. drive two blocks and turn right, and so on.  (submitted by Francisco Amador).

Do as I say, not as I do: A 'Simon says' game with a difference. First practice Simon Says with the Ss so that they understand the game and body parts. I find it works just as well omitting the 'Simon says'. Now tell them to do as you SAY, not as you do, and repeat playing the game - only this time, when you say 'touch your knees' etc, touch your ears instead, or any other part of your body. This is a good way to see who is listening to you correctly and who is just copying your movements. Ss find this game much more fun than the original. (submitted by Lisa Coleman).

Exercises: This one is great for over excited Ss who need to burn off a bit of energy.  It's also good for classroom commands and numbers.  Stand the students in a line and call out instructions: "Jump 10 times", "Turn around 4 times" etc.  Other good ones to use are: run (on the spot), hop, hands up & down, touch your (body part), stand up & sit down and star jump.

Explosion: Give the students a topic and an object to pass around.  Each student has to say a word in that topic (e.g. food - apple, cake etc.) before the time runs out. If the time limit ends the student left holding the object loses. (submitted by Ben).

Fish: Before this game you need to have the students in pairs draw and cut out a picture of a fish for each pair.  While they are doing that put 2 parallel lines of tape on the floor a few meters apart.  Have Ss play in twos - each student behind a different line.  T asks S1 a question.  If the S answers it correctly s/he can blow once to propel the fish forward.  Next, T asks S2.  The S who blows the fish over the tapped line is the winner. |} Give Me Game: You can use with objects or flashcards.  This works well with plastic fruit: Gather and elicit the different kinds of plastic fruit you have.  Then throw all the fruit around the classroom (it's fun just to throw the whole lot in the air and watch the chaos of the Ss scrabbling to pick them up).  Once the Ss have collected the fruit (they'll probably do their best to hide it in their pockets, etc.) T says "Give me an apple".  The S with the apple should approach the T and hand him/her the fruit "Here you are".  Avoid having the fruit thrown back to you as they can go anywhere and takes a long time to finish this game.  

Hangman: The old favorite.  Very good for reviewing vocab from past lessons. 

I spy: T says "I spy with my little eye something that begins with B".  Ss try to guess the object (e.g. "book").  Colors are a good alternative for younger Ss ("... my little eye something that is red").

Juice: Bring a small bottle of juice (e.g. orange juice) to class.  At some point during the lesson take out the bottle and have a sip.  This almost certainly will cause a mini-riot of kids asking for some.  Here's an ideal opportunity to teach "Can I have some juice, please?".  Say this sentence to the first S and get him/her to repeat it - only give him/her some if the sentence is said correctly.  Brink juice along every week, and before long your Ss will be requesting a drink in prefect English!  (If you don't want your Ss to be drinking out of the same bottle as you bring along a few plastic cups).    |}


Assess Your self &Your Children


What I Plan for this Experiment|


What I did in this Experiment|


Interesting videos on primary science

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C.N.Pradeep Kumar,Lecturer,DIET,Kolar,Karnataka state; Hidayathulla.K.K, SSA, Kavaratti, Lakshadweep; Abdunnaser.U.K, DIET, Malapuram, Kerala; Mirsad Khan. K.C, Lecturer, DIET, Kavaratti, Lakshadweep
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